Stage 1 is the least advanced form of prostate cancer. The cancer at this stage is small and has not spread beyond the prostate gland. Stage 1 prostate cancer has a 5-year survival rate of nearly 100 percent. Approximately 80 to 85 percent of all prostate cancers are found in local or regional stages, which represent stages I, II, and III.
Many men diagnosed and treated at the local or regional stages will be free of the disease after five years. Stage 1 means that the cancer is on only half of one side of the prostate or less. It is completely contained within the prostate gland. Treatment for stage IV prostate cancer may also include treatments to help prevent or relieve symptoms such as pain caused by bone metastases.
Since these numbers include all stages of prostate cancer, they do not accurately predict a particular man's prognosis. For prostate cancers that have not spread (stages I to III), doctors also use risk groups (depending on the degree of prostate tumor growth, PSA level, grade group, and prostate biopsy results) to help determine if further testing should be done and to help guide treatment options. For men who have no symptoms due to cancer and who have major health problems, hormone therapy alone, external beam radiation therapy alone, or observation may be options. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) and researchers collect information about what happens to people with cancer in the years after diagnosis.
If prostate cancer hasn't spread to distant parts of the body (stages 1 to 4A), the five-year survival rate is nearly 100 percent, according to the American Cancer Society. Active surveillance may be an option if the cancer is likely to grow very slowly, if at all, but you'll still want to cure it if it gets worse. When you are diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early stage, usually stage I or II, it means that the disease has not spread outside the prostate gland. Metastatic prostate cancer means that a cancer that began in the prostate has spread to another part of the body.
Doctors use the results of all of these tests to help determine the stage of prostate cancer or how far it has progressed. Staging prostate cancer is a sometimes complex process involving multiple tests, measurements, and other factors. Risk groups range from very low risk to very high risk groups, and cancers in lower risk groups are less likely to grow and spread compared to those in higher risk groups. For some men, the treatments themselves carry risks that outweigh the benefits of eliminating the cancer.